The understanding of any subject may be arised by a small detail, but it
is only by looking at the entire picture that it is possible to achieve a
wider underdstanding of that given subject. Then perhaps our individual views
on a certain specific subject may have a wider ground of support.
This article tries to provide the cultural, economic and political
backgrounds to support the more specific analysis of the products on the
article by Adrian Ko, named
The Manchurian Candidates.
By writing this article in my own website I am taking the responsibility
of its contents and not binding anyone else, personally or at any
organizational level, into it.
Having been born in Macau, a city in the Southern Coast of China, I was
raised living side by side with Chinese people who, however, were and are
different from what it is known as the Mainland Chinese.
Culture is one of the most important aspects to perceive with an
open mind entirely freed of prejudices grown of fed unto us in an open or
The immense country with the world's longest and continued civilization
and culture had remained closed to me and the likes of me for political
reasons. I must also take this opportunity to refer that what we call
history is but a mere collection of events of political nature, because
man is essentially a
political animal whose acts cannot be dissociated and placed into
compartments. To think otherwise is fallacious, to act otherwise is also
taking a political stance.
This political animal is part of man's own circumstance, and a brief
reminder that a look back into each of our countries own history will
display contradictions, developments and changes that give history its
On the other hand we cannot also dissociate culture from
politics for these and all other aspects such as economy are
part of a system from where a country generates its identity and
sees its evolution.
It is often forgotten that while the Chinese consolidated their
agrarian based civilization and culture based in Confucianism, the
earliest records of its history date from the
Shang Dynasty. However it was the famous historian Sima Qian
who wrote the Historical Records dating back to 1.300 years earlier from
the period he lived in, 200 BC, with references to the Mythical
until his own times, while the
Qin Dynasty, founded by Qin Shi Huang, unified the core of the Han
people and the Great Wall of China begun to be built.
The consolidation of Confucianism however brought together a reinforcement
to the web of family and birthplace relations that lasts until today.
While China was, in its early times, exposed to different nomadic tribes
and the Silk Road later brought about Persian and Arab merchants as well as
Nestorians, and Jews, which were much later followed by Marco Polo at the time of
the Yuan Dynasty (1271 -1368 AD) it can therefore be concluded that the
Chinese were not ignorant of the world outside. On the contrary, there
were early contacts with Korea, Japan, Vietnam and all the surrounding
states, some of which were often considered tributary states.
These roots of connections and links to other states and exchanges of
ambassadors, marriage of princesses into different countries households
certainly helped to create a spread of technologies that the Chinese
possessed while most of the countries to the East adopted Chinese
calligraphy and Confucianism.
This powerful culture that was capable of absorb and envelop in its own
womb invaders such as the Yuan and later the Manchus, turning them into
culturally Chinese, had by then a long
history full of episodes of wise men who dealt with all kinds of difficult situations,
be it in war or in peaceful times, while Chinese invented paper, the
compass, silk, the water clock, the abacus, and concentrated in astrology
and astronomy, from where their manuals and horoscopes developped.
There are traces of early Chinese immigration to countries such as Laos,
Vietname, Thailand and Korea in as much as some of the 55
Chinese Minorities bear
resemblances to their original homeland. Migration has always existed
It was exactly due to the inheritance of their Past, and its reverence,
the use of Wisdom and Caution, careful reading of the terrain, a habit inherited by the
ancient Art of War
by Sun Tzu, that prompted the Chinese people, used to endure difficult times,
and able to survive in frugral conditions, to
scatter themselves not only through South East Asia but also into other
immigration destinations in later Qing days, in search for a better life.
The Chinese railroad worker, the restaurant owner, the laundry owner are
the most well know clichés brought to us by the cinema.
Not being an
economist, I have nonetheless observed or witnessed episodes and changes
that illustrate the pragmatism and the practicality of the Chinese, mixed
with their behavioral pattern, very much different from Western ways.
Southern Chinese found it easier to immigrate, which led the Cantonese and
the Fukienese to be among the two largest groups to immigrate.
THE WORK OF THE WEB
Having a strong culture and religion of their own, wherever there was a
group of Chinese, a so called China Town was created and these still exist
in the US, Canada, UK, while in other countries they may have adopted a
China Towns were very much the reenaction of a cultural environment that
was familiar to its inhabitants but alien to the host country. This has a
reason, similar to Little Italy, just to mention an example.
Guanxi or relationships are, still today, part of the rules
of engagement for the Chinese. In immigration times, one would look for a
hierarchy of connections when going somewhere. First it would be family,
then it would be people from the same village, or the same region, then it
would be people of the same Province. This mutual assistance was again a
projection of the family web existing in China.
Considering that the Chinese are very good merchants and businessmen, it is not surprising
that they would succeed as such in South East Asia, and one can observe
today that Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia economies, just to name some, are mainly controlled by the so called Overseas Chinese. On the
other hand, the last colonial cities that existed as such in the 20th.
century - Hong Kong and Macau - nested some of the whealthiest Chinese
businessmen in the world, an apparent paradox if seen lightly.
One of the richest man in Asia said the following in an interview:
- Vision is perhaps our greatest strength.. it has kept us alive to the
power and continuity of thought through the centuries, it makes us peer
into the future and lends shape to the unknown.
- We are approaching a new age of synthesis. Knowledge cannot be merely a
degree or a skill.. it demands a broader vision, capabilities in critical
thinking and logical deduction without which we cannot have constructive
- The future may be made up of many factors but where it truly lies is in
the hearts and minds of men. Your dedication should not be confined for
your own gain, but unleashes your passion for our beloved country as well
as for the integrity and humanity of mankind.
To a larger or smaller extent, it is imbued in Chinese culture the
formalities that propitiate the use of both care and vision.
Presently world economy is facing what is considered a serious threat from
Socialist Market Economy, while its leaders refuse to consider the
country more than the developing country status that it has.
Let us stop and think that it is already a feat to feed 1.35 billion
souls of the world's most populated country. However, to think that in
30 years it moved from recovering from the Cultural Revolution into
being the main country to invest in by all powers was a most wise tactical
Indeed while the USSR could not resist the effects of
and Gorbachev saw the disintegration of the Soviet Union,
Deng Xiao Ping
used the caution and vision to first encourage peasants to come to the
cities and sell their vegetables. As they started to make some money,
he further encouraged others to start selling t-shirts, little things.
They succeeded and soon the State started to move away slowly, and the
concept of Socialist Market Economy was formulated, because
strategically Deng gained credit by seeing the experiences
succeed before he would make changes.Wisdom and caution was
required to guide such a highly populated country.
This opening has to do - in my own experience and perspective - with a
careful growth control. In the late 1980's Chinese economy grew at a 15%
rate and that could lead to disastrous effects so cooling down was needed.
From the days of the incipient
Ping Pong Diplomacy of the Nixon era to today's results of a super
modern Shanghai, it means that it took 30 years to go from a population
whose major aspirations was to have a bycicle and a sewing machine to one
other that is invading
Macau's casinos and already help making its profits
rise above Las Vegas'.
A quick search provided a very interesting remark by
Kilby, an American working in one of the American casinos in
Macau: I think in Las Vegas and in the United States, if you were to
talk to the average Las Vegas customer, they came to Las Vegas to eat and
to see the shows and to gamble. When you’re dealing with the Asian
gambler, my impression is it’s all business.
In other words, real tough gambling, real poker faces are here. In the
past, some Mainland China provincial leaders were caught gambling with
Government money. They were arrested, judged, condemned and shot. They
knew what could happen to them, still they went ahead and gambled.
This has another important significance to the Chinese character of today,
as it is generally perceived that only some are tough. One is either
irresponsible or absolutely careless to dare play fortunes at the baccarat
The Chinese don't talk much. They just do what they have to do. It is not
a talk culture.
is a bustling city of over
20 million people. Las time I consulted any list it was 13
million, already a staggering number. While like all hugely
populated cities it struggles with plenty of problems, modernization have
shown a great deal of changes, including the night life.
When I was in Shanghai, in
the mid 1990's Huang Pu, just in front of the Bund, was starting to get
busy. Now it is getting in full speed of construction.
tried to be as objective as possible. I recall the days where I rebelled
Run Shaw for just making Kung Fu films and stating: I give what
the public wants. I thought he could do more, and better. He
understood that movies are an industry and he was there to make money, not
to educate people with better scripted films. I can now see his
pragmatism, though I am not entirely convinced, but I respect his stance.
Just in front of my window they started to build a 30 storey hotel
pertaining to a huge gambling complex. They started to work on the hotel
and the complex around October 2004. By then there was little to be seen.
Now it looks like this.
photograph on the left was purposedly taken on a Sunday. Yes, everybody on the private
sectors work on Sundays. It is incredible the speed and the combination of
traditional bamboo scafolding with other technical means. The speed and
efficiency of work is so great that the American Casino Company has
already announced the opening of the huge complex to 2006, next year! The
Casa da Música in Portugal, took six years to build and open and
it occupies about 1/10 of the Macau complex whose remaining part can be
seen in the right picture.
But while all this may be true, not all of China is the same. It is too
large a population.
STRATEGY AS A TOOL FOR ECONOMIC
China's perception of time is rather unique. It
does not aim for a lifetime, or should I say short term, and I am deeply
convinced that its agrarian roots have fed its civilization and culture
with an understanding of how long a tree takes to grow or the cycle of
crops and so forth.
Bearing this in mind, one can analyze Deng Xiao Ping's
strategy of a
One Country Two Systems policy, as a way to create an economical
development through a capillary effect from the coast line towards the interior.
Therefore Hong Kong and Macau were part of the package, as well as
Shanghai and other cities on the coast, that did not only qualify but
would inspire, through their development, all the future potentialities.
Life is harder in inner China, as it is in many places in the world.
Social inequalities and other issues still exist, but I can personally
understand that China is taking its own pace to change in the most secure
and stable way possible.
Not all cities bear resemblance to Hong Kong, Shanghai or Macau. Those
cities are not just an inheritance of Communist China, but also of
thousands of years of Chinese culture that, again, is mainly agrarian.
Understanding China and the Chinese is an experience on its own. Any
vision from the outside without ever have experienced China, can be most
deceiving, for many can thrive on information that has been fed to them,
but not on experience.
Are the Chinese faultless and flawless? No, by no means. Many leaders
throughout its long history failed, committed big mistakes out of absolute
power or ill advice. But the world is now seeing the awakening of a
immense giant and the reactions I see, are mainly signs of fear, disguised
as noble causes.
China served their purposes when it was their factory. It was so
convenient and mostly they looked upon the Chinese from their own
perspectives which is erroneous. After all the British invented Ethnology
to better study and control the people they Colonized. Indirectly it was a
I have contacted a friend and asked for his testimonial. He lives in the
US, he is American and he has visited China briefly but very recently.
Here is his own testimonial, untouched:
AN AMERICAN IN
SHENYANG a testimonial
My immediate impression of Shenyang was made as the
plane made its descent through the clouds. The land was arid and dry, with
sparse, patchwork farms stretching out in all directions. Though it was
December, from the plane one would not know the time of year as there was
no snow on the ground. I could not help but be reminded of the hot days I
spent in East Central Africa, traveling over the dry earth, from small
farm town to small farm town. It was then that I realized that most of my
ideas and visions of China were a creation, visions of Hong Kong that I
have seen in a thousand movies. Visions of busy, bustling port cities
standing tall against the ocean, buzzing under the hum of bright neon
lights...these things were my expectation of China.
But the China that I came to know, was much different.
is one of the 10 largest cities in China, and yet, standing on the street
corner as my breath crystalized in the frigid air, I could not help but
feel that the city was nearly empty. In the dark shadows cast by new sky
scrapers and luxury hotels, stand burned out, condemned buildings that
time has all but forgotten. The city is a product of industry, and it is
not hard to see the remanents of the old communist China here, as rows and
rows of identical buildings line the streets, equal in construction, and
now equal in disrepair. People ride by on their bicycles, which is for
most, their only means of transportation. They pedal miles and miles
through the frozen city, often carrying loads shackeled to their bikes
that are so large, it would be unthinkable to transport such cargo in
anything other than a large truck to someone from a country where bicycles
are a recreation, not a means of survival. These people are of all ages,
and in the faces of old men and women that should have retired years and
years ago, I see the hard lines of a frown that has been carved into their
face over a lifetime of working 12 hour days, probably 7 days a week. I am
struck by an immediate feeling of despair that such old people should
still be toiling away at manual labor, hauling garbage and appliances
across the city. I begin to wonder what their children are doing, and why
they are not able to enjoy the last years of their life in relaxation.
Then it hits me...their children are working, just like they are.
My experience of Africa was that many people are poor, because there are
simply no jobs, and no opportunities. But in Shenyang, the poor are not
unemployed at all...the poor are working. Working hard. They spend their
days hauling materials across the city, cooking in sweltering kitchens,
and selling their wares on the streets. The streets are dirty, and like my
own hometown of Chicago there is a strange kind of pride amongst its
inhabitants. They may be poor, they may lack a quality education and
healthcare, but they work. These people know what it is like to work hard,
until exhaustion topples them at the end of the day, and what it is like
to wake every morning to do it all over again. They wear a badge of pride
that is invisible to most people who have never had to work hard to
survive. I can see it on their faces, and it reminds me that these people
are really no different than any other, simply in a different
circumstance. I have seen this look on many faces in my own country, and
while I was born into a life of opportunity and luxury, I was always most
at home with people who knew what that look meant. I came from a family of
farmers and laborers, who became a family of educated professionals one
generation before my own, and they have not ever forgotten their origins.
Maybe I recognize this look so well, because I have seen it in the eyes of
my father and grandfather ever since I can remember.
Over the next few days and nights, Shenyang opened its doors for me in
many ways. I was treated to a few wonderful meals, whose taste and exotic
flavors completely defied my knowledge of cuisine. I received a level of
service, even at less expensive restaurants, which knows no equal in the
US or most of Europe. Tea is filled the moment your cup comes to rest on
the table, before your hand has even made its retreat from the cup.
Napkins are unfoled and placed on your lap. The eyes of at least three
waiters are constantly surveying the table, eager to ensure that any need
is met the instant it arises. Dining becomes an effortless tour through
the senses, rather than a simple mechanism of survival. To be sure, for
every one restaurant like this there are thousands of street booths,
vendor carts, and simple eateries where a meal is simply a way of
nourishing the body, and nothing more. But I began to wonder how a culture
of such hard working people develops this level of service. Maybe it is
something historical, a remnant of a time when China had a very strong
class system and royalty. Maybe it is a recent invention of business. But
I like to think it is something more special. I like to believe that the
very same people who work so hard, have come to appreciate and cherish
such service on the few occaisions they are able to share a fine meal with
their loved ones. I like to think that this kind of service, is born out
of a culture that knows the meaning of labor, and appreciates those
special times when family and friends gather in joy, to forget the days
work and nourish their bodies and minds with good company and a fine meal.
My time in Shenyang was short, and just a few days after I arrived I found
myself watching those patchwork farms that surround the city disappear
below the clouds once again. But the thing that stayed with me, the thing
that I kept from that place that I cherish, is a sense of connection. In
this most different of worlds, where I could not even have a simple
conversation with anyone who didn't speak my language, I found a sense of
belonging that I find hard to put into words. I saw in the faces of those
hard working people, the same proud, tired expression that I have seen on
my father's face, and my grandfather's face. And it reminded me, that we
are all a member of a much larger and more important community than our
nationality. It reminded me of the basic, salient humanity in all of us.
It reminded me that every person on this planet is basically seeking the
same things. Family, safety, nourishment, connection to others who
understand them. And by the time I left Shenyang, the place did not feel
lonely at all.
paradise? Far from it. All societies carry a large amount of
contradictions. China is far from being perfect. But it seems that
although a one party system - go and figure out other way to get a 1.35
billion people country stable - it has changed beyod the point of no
return. Will it adopt Democracy as in the West? Why would it have
to be compelled to do so the way others wish?
I recall Portuguese ex-President
saying the obvious, when questioned on TV about the existance of the
Portuguese Communist Party. This friend of Willy Brandt and François
Miterrand replied: a real democrat must accept all inclinations if he
is to be a real democrat, for democracy is exactly the respect for
BEHAVIOURAL CODES AND RITUALS
Chinese people in general suffered much during most regimes, both in
feudal times and in more recent times. It is nothing new to a country that
is over populated and big. Generally all countries tend to forget the
vast, silent and invisible majority, to focus their attention on the higher
classes, be it now or before.
There are very important values that the Chinese cherish. No matter how
humble, their lineage, the continuation of their name is sacred, and no
effot will be spared to ensure that a boy will be born to continue the
name. This may be one of the reasons why, since very early times, the
Chinese multiplied and cherished family ties as not only a weave of
affections but a bond that would help them in times of affliction.
for one's parents when they reached old age was and is part of the Chinese
cultural tradition that continues to exist. It is part of Confucianism
which also roots itself in the practical sense of a chain of
responsibilities that are retributed, hence welfare is ensured, generation
after generation. It is known as filial piety, which is a very poor
translation in my opinion.
Elders, as in many cultures, have been treated with respect since long, as
the boundary between knowledge and wisdom is difficult to define. Unlike
many of their counterparts in Western countries, Chinese elders are active
and practice Tai Qi or Qi Gong or just exercise and try to put their
In the picture on the left, in a traditional old house, three
generations sit together.
The wisdom of humbleness
Humbleness is another aspect of Chinese culture. While a master painter or
caligrapher receives his guests at his exhibition, he will always say
duo duo xi qiao meaning more or less "I thank you for all teachings you
may wish to give me". This is a very ingeniuous way as well, to avoid
criticism, for it disarms any envious artist. It is usually unthinkable
that someone will brag about his doings.
The existence of conflicts is natural. However not too often are they
displayed openly. The use of a friend as a mediator is common practice.
Again a practice that has been used for many centuries. Very often, the
common friend offers to mediate between the two parties, as being
equidistant, he will try to sooth open wounds, talking reason into each
Many Chinese choose not to express their views in public as they don't
feel the need for it, while others do. It cannot be viewed as a rule of
One of the most prized values of the Chinese is face, which can
be translated as honor. To give face to someone is to honor him. To
loose face is to be dishonored, while to turn face or
change face means the insult of changing from a friendly attitude
towards a hostile one.
Chinese people are very tolerant and they usually mind their own
business. I have witnessed a Westerner dressed in the robes of a
hare krishna member and
not one single person turned or stopped to stare.
This tolerance is based on a lack for a generalized need of personal
affirmation. Other than tolerance, there is a character in Chinese for
enduring which is a knife's edge pointed at one's own chest.
The Chinese have learned to survive against all things and odds. Their
ingenuity even made bamboo shoots a part of their diet.
Because of this, they may eventually look rude in the elevator, not
allowing women to get in first, caring for themselves. They may look
distant as they will not care for you. But once you get acquainted and
start a friendship with a Chinese, independent of his degree of culture or
learning, provided he is of good upbringing, he will be a most loyal
It takes time and know how to develop a relationship, but once it is
develop one will notice an unusual amount of commitment. I have too many
examples in my life to vouch for. These are but some of the most cherished
values of Chinese culture and behavior. There are, as everywhere,
exceptions that just confirm the rule.
Time: Life as an
understanding of Death
I will once again address the issue of time because it is of
The greatest Portuguese symbollist poet by the name of
Camilo Pessanha, who lived in Macau in the beggining of the 20th.
Century, wrote a ferocious article against the many forms of death that
exhisted in China when he visited the execution grounds in Canton
(Guanzhou), an inheritance of Imperial times.
Pessanha, albeit living in Macau for at least two decades could not
penetrate in the Chinese spirit of both endurance and despise of life.
This detachment from existence can be understood and interpreted in
different ways. One is to view it as a fatalistic perspective, something
that is accepted without great complaints. But while this can be one
perspective, I am more inclined to the cultural inheritance of Buddhism
and the belief of reincarnation. With this belief, time becomes extended,
and combined with the family lineage in which the son will continue
one's work, then it is better perceived that one's life is not that
important, though long life is cherished greatly.
This paradox will also allow for a timely preparation for death. Chinese
bought their coffins and chose their clothes with which they wished to be
buried long before their expected time of demise. This conviviality with
death, this almost acquaintance with death not only through these
practices but also with immense suffering from wars and public executions
witnessing generated a natural acceptance of death.
With these values in hand, and the sense of time different from the
urgency of the West, Chinese and most Eastern people, and having had
dynasties as long as the Shang (1700 - 1027 BC) it would be
imperative and natural that the notion of time played and plays in favor
THE ARTS AND THE SKILLS
artists and artisans have always shown a great amount of skill.
Since ancient times,
were made in unique shapes and patterns, indicating a great control over
the technical skills required.
The same type of skills and investigative mind gave free hand to the
painting with very unique characteristics that not only demanded a
great skill with the brush but also differences of styles, but always a
reverence to past masters from the
porcelain was another invention that flourished immensely to very
high standards attaining very thin surfaces providing great translucency,
and sought after by the West.
carving has been another area of examples of superb craftsmanship. This
that I owned, although being made in the 20th. century, is a perfect
example of even more intricate work.
There are still so many areas that one could dwell in, from lacquer ware
to paper cutting, to furniture to cloisonné, and silver jewelry, and so
From my own design teaching experience, I see that the Chinese people has
a natural inclination for expressing themselves, most possibly because of
the way the learnt to write in Chinese calligraphy.
I would strongly advise anyone interested to buy a book called
True to Form whose cover is seen here.
It covers the different crafts from the Chinese
called called chui'er in northern China which gave birth to
I would like, as a reminder, to state that I am not exalting Chinese
culture, I am rather making a modest attempt to bring some little light
One analyzes the characteristics of a certain culture and its art and
crafts expressions, not against any other culture, but by their own
Once this is perceived, it must be also considered the fact that no
culture has remained immune to influence and exchange. This is most clear
with the hybridation of most of the pieces of the
Beijing Astronomical Observatory built under the direction of the
Therefore, although bearer of a specific and heavy cultural heritage,
China accepted Western visitors such as Marco Polo under the
allowed the Portuguese to settle in Macau in the 16th. century, while
Kangxi was open to the
Qian Long continued to engage with foreigners.
It is therefore nothing new in present day China that it is once more
opening its huge market to world investors, including Taiwanese
It has its own policy in as much as the
Chinese Republic was based on a Western concept and the Communist
takeover in 1949 represented again the emergence of another westernized
ideology that, however were not based on the proletariat, but on the
farmers. China had always its own way to adapt things to their own way.
Therefore, it should not be surprising that among the thousands of
investors in China, some came from Taiwan, and from these, some invested
on the business of making swords, competing with other mainland sword
makers who specialize in Chinese weaponry made in more traditional ways.
THE STAGE AND THE BACKGROUND FOR THE "MADE IN CHINA"
lenghty, this article barely touches the surface of the reality in China,
both good and bad. But both have to be seen intrinsically from within,
observed with non-contaminated eyes, and then conclusions can be drawn.
Intensive labor, highly competitive prices, pragmatism, lack of need for
This is the scenario that provided for the appearence not only of Paul
Chen, the Manchurian candidate, but for others such as Fred Chen.
The Chinese gave in by opening their market for the Western countries,
while absorbing the know how. Again time was not a factor. Meantime Taiwanese enterpreneurs are selling
swords made in a competitive production environment where workers do not
ask for much, produce what they are told to do, and learn the skills of
forging swords and so forth according to what they are thaught.
In this context, the price that the consumer pays is again a
political price, because it is simply dictated by the prices of production
and those of sale to the consumer. In other words, profit margin.
In the 1960's, Japanese cars and products were making their appearance in
the world stage. Nowadays very few doubt of their overall quality.
South Korea followed and today many of South Korean products are of
excellent quality and competitive price.
Production swords have to be seen first as a product, secondly as a
profitable business for the larger companies, and finally they have to be
assessed by the quality offered and its ratio vs. price.
Some things that can be thought as impossible in the West are entirely
feasible in China. Chinese can excell in superb
craftsmanship once they fully understand what is required of them.
Everything depends on different variables and they are certainly not
responsible for the hype that exist around a factory product.
Intensive labour, cheap workmanship, obervation of Western market
practices, led to the emergence of Chinese companies that are now
following the path that the Western companies paved for them. There were
signals all the way on
that signalled the real cost of a result of labour, steel and so forth.
Looking at the tree and forgetting the
these eBay items were subject to plenty of criticism on their quality,
the indisputable fact is that they are made of steel, they have been
forged and mounted wrongly, but they cut. The purists forgot to
analyze the price factor. In other words, the signals that could be
analyzed through these items.
think that the sword listed in the center row could be Bought It
Now for $2.00. The downloading of the images
provides an inequivocable proof that, no matter how bad they
are, it is virtually impossible to sell them for $2.00 even
analysing the images below.
set of two swords listed as item 7337875996 would therefore cost
other cases, quality is much better but nonetheless they work as the
indicators of labor cost from which the real factories make a huge
profit already at the export port, based on quantity as well. On the
receiving end more profit is added until it reaches the price people
summing the parts of this article that has been written on my available
time, and what do I find out? That in many cases there is an ideology
based on usage, a row of exploitation of cheaper manufacturing
countries which become inconvenient the moment they volley back the ball.
To understand how economics affect everyone, to understand and accept that
economics dictate policies is now to understand the old Chinese saying:
there is always a taller mountain than the one you know.
This being said, it is not surprising the least, that Chinese
companies are directly offering their products. They didn't create the
final price, they just want no intermediaries. Who is to blame for the
DISCLAIMER: This article is a personal analysis based on my beliefs on
human fraternity and is not intended to denigrate any country, any culture
but rather to focus on my own experience and views of China since the
60's. If it is political in some way, it is because it reflects my belief
that everything is linked in a hollistic way.
Cejunior 2005 - Bladesign